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MATCH UP X4BMW-CTR.3 Centre Speaker Upgrade - BMW E89 Z4 Roadste

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Dropping Giant Rolls of Film From Satellites to Spy from Space

  By Allison Kubo More cold war science in case you enjoyed our last cold war science article: the atomic-powered-nuclear-weapon-silo-ice-sculpture. In 1958, the Central Intelligence Agency started project Corona, a top-secret mission to perform photographic surveillance of the Soviet Union. Of course, this is before digital cameras. Current digital cameras use charge-coupled devices (CCD) which an array of capacitors transfer the photons that hit them into electrical signals. Although the development of the CCD began only a year after Project Corona, it wasn’t until the 1970s that it was employed by the military for imaging. However, before digital cameras film, photographic emulsions were used. These work in a similar way, except the light, hits a crystal in the film and changes its orientation. After the film is exposed to light, it must be developed in various chemical baths to “fix” the film so that it can be examined. The Corona Project consisted of a series of eight s
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Are Large-Scale Data Breaches the New Normal?

  By: Hannah Pell Image credit: Wikimedia Commons. In early May 2021, a ransomware attack on the Colonial Pipeline caused massive disruption to the East Coast’s fuel supply. Pictures of cars lined up at gas stations and warnings not to “panic buy” gasoline evoked memories of the 1973 oil crisis . Colonial Pipeline Co. paid a $4.4 million ransom demanded by the hackers — which the Federal Bureau of Investigations has since recovered — and chose to shut down the pipeline for the first time in its 57-year history, avoiding the possibility of the hackers gaining direct control over infrastructure transporting 2.5 million barrels of gasoline, diesel, heating oil, and jet fuel per day. “We were in a harrowing situation and had to make difficult choices that no company ever wants to face, but I am proud of the fact that our people reacted quickly to get the pipeline back up and running safely,” Colonial Pipeline Co. CEO Joseph Blount said in his testimony to the Senate Committee on Home

How the Film Tenet Explores Entropy, Information, and Maxwell's Demon

  By: Hannah Pell “If we conceive a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course, such a being, whose attributes are still as essentially finite as our own, would be able to do what is impossible to us,” wrote James Clerk Maxwell in his Theory of Heat (1871). With this sentence, Maxwell cast considerable doubt on the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated system left to spontaneous evolution cannot decrease. (Think of how air always flows from hot to cold, eventually reaching thermal equilibrium). Such a “being” was later characterized as a “demon” by William Thomson in an 1874 article published in the journal Nature, because of its “ far-reaching subversive effects on the natural order of things. ” Thus, Maxwell’s demon was born, outlining a paradox that remained unresolved for 115 years . Maxwell envisioned the thought experiment as follows: Picture two adjacent rooms — A and B — containing gases at

Physicists’ Early Dreams of Nuclear Powered Spaceflight

By: Hannah Pell  Considering how much space junk is in orbit, the need to maintain and monitor cislunar space (the region between Earth and the Moon) is becoming an increasingly important issue. To do so effectively may require spacecraft that can propel for longer durations than currently available, and nuclear reactors may offer a solution. Recent news of progress utilizing nuclear technology to power extended spaceflight — from the Demonstration Rocket for Agile Cislunar Operations (DRACO) program, SpaceNukes, among others — is an opportunity to reexamine the history of this technology and pinpoint the origins of nuclear propulsion: Project Orion. The Beginnings of Nuclear Propulsion  At the end of World War II, after witnessing the catastrophic destruction possible from nuclear weapons, physicists actively sought peaceful applications of such nuclear capabilities. Nuclear power, once regarded as “too cheap to meter,” is a well-known example of these efforts, but some saw anot

What its Like to be Eaten by a Baby TRex

  Allison Kubo Hutchison We’ve already covered some important questions like do trilobites bites (spoiler: they don’t) but recent research has given insight into another important question: what is it like to be eaten by a baby T-Rex? The answer is it is between being eaten by a hyena and a crocodile. To get this result, first paleontologists uncovered a fossil with bite marks that are thought to be from a young T. rex specimen. The spacing and dimensions of punctures on the fossilized vertebrae of an edmontosaurus, a type of duck-billed dinosaur, were compared to various T. rex fossils of different ages and found to match those between 11-12 years old. After identifying that it was from the T. rex, scientists attempted to duplicate the depth and shape of the wounds today. Researchers mounted a tooth made of dental-grade cobalt-chromium alloy on an “electromechanical testing system”, a biting machine, then “bit” a cow bone. After examining the wounds on the cow bone for similari

The Most Deadly Magic Carpet Ride

By Allison Kubo Hutchison USGS: Pyroclastic flow at Mount Saint Helens on August 7, 1980. The volcano erupts. The immense pressure within the volcano due to the build-up of gases causes fragmentation. The thicker and more viscous the magma the more fragmentation occurs (Read more about that here ). The fragmented magma cools into sharp, glasslike ash and larger blocks. It hurtles out of the volcano and forms a pyroclastic flow. Of all volcanic hazards, pyroclastic flows are the most deadly. They are extremely fast-moving, deceptively so. The thick opaque billows that accompany a flow hide the fast-moving avalanche that makes up the core of the flow. They are also very hot, ranging between 100 C to 500 C. Due to the high vapor content within them and their high velocity even “low” temperatures can be fatal for humans. In some eruptions, the flows have been able to penetrate homes, moving under doors and through ventilation, killing those inside and outside due to the immense heat

Venus is calling!

By Allison Kubo Hutchison NASA announced on June 2 that it would send two missions to the hot house planet. Once again NASA made robots will vist the Venusian skies for the first time since the Magellen orbiter mission which ended in 1994. These missions come after renewed interest in Venus due to the hotly debated phosphine controversy which if true could be a biosignature. The two missions were selected as part of the Discovery Program after a competitive peer review against the other possible missions. The two lucky winners are the DAVINCI+ (Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging) and VERITAS (Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy). DAVINCI+, led by James Garvin of Goddard Space Flight Center, will measure the composition of Venus’ atmosphere with the goal of understanding how it was formed (Pictured). It would be the first U.S.-led mission to sample and study the atmosphere since 1978 and the first probe to study th
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